If a monolayer coating is needed, then a separate KSV NIMA Langmuir-Blodgett trough with dipping capability is available. The Langmuir-Blodgett trough has a sensitive force balance and moveable barriers that can maintain the surface pressure of a monolayer as the substrate is withdrawn from the trough with the monolayer at its surface. The maximum substrate size is 56 mm high, 52 mm wide, and 3 mm thick. The subphase volume in the trough is 176 ml. The force balance can sense a surface tension of up to 150 mN/m with a resolution of 4 μN/m. Substrates can be dipped in either a vertical or horizontal geometry. The Langmuir-Blodgett trough can also be used without the dipper for a variety of experiments where monitoring and control of surface pressure of monolayer films is needed, such as enzyme kinetics or monolayer hydrolysis.